Mon, 2022-01-17 21:29 -- hwadmin
Figure 12.2: Heathland vegetation and fuels showing remarkable consistency in composition and structure in Calluna-dominated habitats, including (a, b) upland dry heath, (c) lowland dry heath and (d) a transitional upland wet heath, namely blanket bog. (a, b) In the upland dry heath, evidence of prescribed fire in the form of burned strips and differences in vegetation structure can be seen. (d) Note the stand of fire beaters left out on the lowland heath. (e) A vertical cross-section through a mature-stage Calluna canopy showing the predominately live (green) canopy, abundant dead aerial fuels (grey) in the lower canopy and the pleurocarpous moss ground fuels; the bands on the measuring stick are 10 cm. (f) A close-up of a building-phase Calluna in a Norwegian heath. (g) Patch-scale variation in Calluna canopy status affects the balance between dead and live fuel abundance. Such ‘browning’ of Calluna is a common phenomenon in colder climates and may be caused by overwinter frost damage and moisture stress, as well as outbreaks of the heather beetle (Watson et al. 1966; Hancock 2008; Davies et al. 2010b). Image credits: (b) ‘East side of Clashanruich from Lary Hill’ by Nigel Corby (licenced under CC BY-SA 2.0); (c) ‘Fire-beaters by the track, Town Common’ by Jim Champion (licenced under CC BY-SA 2.0); (d) ‘Bog-bashing territory’ by Eric Jones (licenced under CC BY-SA 2.0); all other images taken by the authors.
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